Bridges come in a lot of different shapes, but the most common ones are beam, arch, and suspension. Most are also made to withstand three basic forces: their own weight, the weight of the load (people, cars, trucks, animals), and stresses from the environment, such as wind, water, and earthquakes. One must visit online civil engineering courses with certificates.
1. Arch Bridge
Some of the Romans’ more than 1,000 stone arch bridges, like the Pont-Saint-Martin bridge in Italy’s Aosta Valley, still stand today (built in the first century BCE). The plans for this bridge go back more than 3,000 years. Arch bridges built today are also made out of concrete.
The weight of the bridge itself is called the dead load, plus the weight of anything it carries is the bridge’s load (the live load). An arch bridge uses the forces of weight and gravity, which would normally pull the bridge down, to keep it up.
2. The Beam Bridge
Because it was easy to build, the beam bridge was the first type of bridge ever made. Still, it costs the least to build. All you need is a crossbeam that goes across the span and an abutment at each end to hold it up. A girder bridge is a type of beam bridge that is held together by steel girders.
When building a bridge, gravity is a bigger problem than when building a building, because most of what’s under a bridge is empty space. A beam bridge might only need two abutments, one at each end, to balance the force of gravity and hold up its entire load.
3. The Cantilever Bridge
Cantilever construction is used to build some bridges. This type has a pillar that goes straight down into the ground and holds up a deck that goes out from one or both sides across the span. Often, the load is held up from both above and below. Cantilever construction can be seen in a diving board or platform.
The Quebec Bridge in Canada has the longest cantilever span in the world. It was built in 1919 and is 1,800 feet long. It was longer than the Forth Bridge in Scotland, which was built in 1890 and reached its full length.
4. A Suspension Bridge
The famous Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, a suspension bridge is probably the most well-known type of bridge in the United States. It was finished in 1937, and each year more than 10 million people come to see its twin 746-foot orange towers and Art Deco style.
Suspension bridges are exactly what they sound like: they are held up by vertical pillars or pylons that are connected by cables. The bridge deck is held up by tension, which is the main force that keeps suspension bridges standing.
5. Cable-Stayed Bridge
A cable-stayed bridge is a type of suspension bridge in which the bridge deck or crossbeam is directly attached to pillars or towers. There is no main cable. Instead, the top of the tower has a lot of vertical hangers.
This was in brief about the types of bridges. To gain more insights visit the design of steel structures online course.